Got treated today to a really nice workout in group cohomology; most of which is well worth sharing, since seeing it done once gave me a lot of insight.
So, if we pick and view it as the set 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and with the group operation given by a*b = a+b % 10, then one standard 2-cocycle is the function
That this actually does form a cocycle would be the same as requiring
which is to say that the number of carry bits generated when adding three digits does not depend on associativity.
This cocycle classifies the group extension
with the first map taking and the second taking
Now, this is a nontrivial extension – which is equivalent to it not being a coboundary – by the following calculation:
Suppose f=dg. Then f(a,b)=g(a)+g(b)-g(a*b). So, since f(0,0)=0, we get g(0)-g(0)+g(0)=0, so g(0)=0. For any b≤8, we also get 0=f(1,b)=g(b)-g(b+1)+g(1), so g(b+1)=g(b)+g(1) and thus by induction, g(b)=bg(1) for all 0≤b≤9.
But, now, 1=f(1,9)=g(9)-g(0)+g(1)=10g(1)=0, which is a contradiction.
Thus f is not a coboundary, and thus has a nontrivial cohomology class associated to it.
One further useful observation is that f(a,b)=(a+b-a*b)/10.
Note, that if we started out with addition in base B for some arbitrary B, not one single line of the above would have had anything but the most trivial updates needed. Thus, this argument holds for any base, and not only for base 10.
Now, suppose we pick ourselves some g in – let’s even decide to take the identity. So ga=a for any a in our . Then the Bockstein of this is the image under the connecting homomorphism under the long exact sequence in cohomology induced by the short exact sequence
with and as above.
So the class [g] maps first to some set map , which we choose to be the one we create by identifying with the integers 0,1,…,B-1. Thus the images of g end up living in without us having to do any extra work for it. This map, then, we can throw along the differential, and then we get a cocycle; so that we know that it takes values in , so we can “just” divide by B to get something in the right universe for our Bockstein image.
Applied to our specific g, note that
which is our carry bit map all over again.
If we happen to have a generic g, then we get a similar result; only without being able to use as comfortably. We get, in the end, for a 1-cocycle g:
I wanted to talk about Bocksteins and the differential in the LHS spectral sequence at this point, but I’m no longer certain of what these, if anything, have to do with each other, so I won’t.